In acute circulatory failure, passive leg raising (PLR) is a test that predicts whether cardiac output will increase with volume expansion . By transferring a volume of around 300 mL of venous blood  from the lower body toward the right heart, PLR mimics a fluid challenge. However, no fluid is infused and the hemodynamic effects are rapidly reversible [1,3], thereby avoiding the risks of fluid overload. This test has the advantage of remaining reliable in conditions in which indices of fluid responsiveness that are based on the respiratory variations of stroke volume cannot be used , like spontaneous breathing, arrhythmias, low tidal volume ventilation, and low lung compliance.
Our study underlines the unprecedented rise in damages from coastal flooding unless mitigation and adaptation measures are taken. We find that around 95% of these impacts could be avoided through moderate greenhouse gas emission mitigation and by raising dykes where human settlements and economically important areas exist along the coastline. The extent to which adaptation can lessen the effects of coastal flooding and at what cost is sensitive to the investment strategy adopted.
Expected benefit to cost ratios of raising coastal protection per NUTS2 region. Values are shown for two scenarios: Sustainability with RCP4.5 (a) and fossil fuel based development with RCP8.5 (b). Grey colours express areas where the maximum net present value is achieved with the current protection.
The DCSS On the Go mobile app has been updated. All mobile app users must download version 5.1 to continue using features such as uploading documents, making appointments, and Driver's License status. The older version 5.0 is no longer active.
Download the below Raising Our Sights DIY Fundraising Toolkit for more information about starting your own fundraising event. The toolkit includes fundraising ideas, sample promotion messaging and templates to make your event planning go smoothly. 59ce067264