Eating eggs increases the risk of dying from heart disease, according to research published in Circulation. Researchers compared egg and cholesterol consumption and blood cholesterol levels with death from cardiovascular disease in over 27,000 participants and conducted a systematic review of existing research. Eating one egg per day significantly increased the risk of dying from heart disease. Higher blood cholesterol levels and higher intakes of dietary cholesterol were also associated with an elevated risk of death from heart disease. These findings support limiting dietary cholesterol intake for improved heart health.
A 2021 study found that the addition of half an egg per day was associated with more deaths from heart disease, cancer, and all causes. For every 300 milligrams of dietary cholesterol consumed per day, mortality risk increased by up to 24%. A study published in JAMA found that that each 300 milligram dose of dietary cholesterol was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality by 17% and 18%, respectively. When it came to eggs, each half egg caused a 6% and 8% increased risk, respectively. A study in the Canadian Journal of Cardiology found that those who eat the most eggs have a 19% higher risk for cardiovascular problems.
The modified Chinese food diet was modeled after the heart-healthy Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. Eating an unhealthy diet, especially one high in sodium, is considered a modifiable risk factor for high blood pressure, also known as hypertension. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which has increased rapidly in China in recent decades due in large part to unhealthy dietary changes, such as eating fewer grains, legumes and vegetables and dramatically more meat, eggs and oils.
"Chinese people who live in the U.S. and elsewhere often maintain a traditional Chinese diet, which is very different from a Western diet," study team co-chair Dr. Yangfeng Wu said in a news release. Wu is a professor at Peking University Clinical Research Institute in Beijing. "Healthy Western diets such as DASH and Mediterranean have been developed and proven to help lower blood pressure. However, until now, there has not been a proven heart-healthy diet developed to fit into traditional Chinese cuisine."
More than one-fifth of the world's population eats Chinese food regularly. The findings suggest that if the heart-healthier diet were sustained, it could reduce major cardiovascular disease by 20%, heart failure by 28% and death from any cause by 13%.
In the study, 265 Chinese adults with high blood pressure were randomly assigned to eat a diet that matched their regular eating style or a modified, heart-healthy version of their traditional Cantonese, Szechuan, Shandong or Huaiyang cuisine for 28 days.
Blood pressure was measured before and after the study period and once a week while participants ate the assigned diets. Although blood pressure declined in both groups, participants who ate heart-healthy versions of their traditional diets saw much bigger declines. Their systolic blood pressure fell by an extra 10 mmHg on average compared with the control group; diastolic blood pressure dropped nearly an extra 4 mmHg. Results were comparable across the four regional styles of cuisine.
"Health professionals should recommend a heart-healthy diet with low sodium and high potassium, fiber, vegetables and fruits as the first-line treatment to their patients with high blood pressure," Wu said. "Because traditional Chinese dietary culture and cooking methods are often used wherever Chinese people live, I believe a heart-healthy Chinese diet and the principles that we used for developing the diet would be helpful for Chinese Americans as well."
watchOS 9 brings great new ways to keep you active, healthy, and connected with Apple Watch. You have more ways to train and measure your workouts, a completely redesigned compass app, a new app to track your medications, more powerful sleep tracking with sleep stages, and better insights and support for your heart health if you have been diagnosed with atrial fibrillation.
Athletes who use a heart rate monitor as a training aid need to identify their actual maximum heart rate to determine their appropriate training zones. Maximum heart rate (HRmax) can be determined by undertaking a maximum heart rate stress test which, although relatively short, does require you to push your body and your heart to the very limit. It can also be predicted using a formula, but the variation in actual HRmax of 95% of individuals of a given age will lie within a range of ±20 beats/minute (Gellish 2007).
Research conducted by Gulati et al. (2010) identified that the traditional male-based calculation (220-age) overestimates the maximum heart rate for age in women. They investigated the association between heart rate response to exercise testing and age with 5437 women. It was found that the mean peak heart rate for women = 206 - (0.88 x age).
It is possible to estimate your exercise intensity as a percentage of VO2 max from your training heart rate. Swain et al. (1994) used statistical procedures to examine the relationship between %HRmax and %VO2max. Their results led to the following regression equation:
Research by Uth et al. (2004) found that VO2 max can be estimated indirectly from an individual's maximum heart rate (HRmax)and resting heart rate (HRrest) with an accuracy that compares favourably with other standard VO2 max tests. It is given by:
The recently completed Catheter Ablation Versus Anti-Arrhythmic Drug Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation (CABANA) trial was designed to help answer questions about the relative efficacy of ablative versus drug therapy in decreasing the primary endpoint, which is the composite of death, disabling stroke, serious bleeding or cardiac arrest in individuals with AF. Secondary endpoints included all-cause mortality; mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization; mortality, stroke or hospitalization for heart failure or an ischemic event; cardiovascular death; freedom from recurrent AF; and composite adverse events. Additionally, medical costs and quality of life in each arm were evaluated.
As more data comes in from China and Italy, as well as Washington state and New York, more cardiac experts are coming to believe the COVID-19 virus can infect the heart muscle. An initial study found cardiac damage in as many as 1 in 5 patients, leading to heart failure and death even among those who show no signs of respiratory distress.
That could change the way doctors and hospitals need to think about patients, particularly in the early stages of illness. It also could open up a second front in the battle against the COVID-19 pandemic, with a need for new precautions in people with preexisting heart problems, new demands for equipment and, ultimately, new treatment plans for damaged hearts among those who survive.
But Bonow and many other cardiac specialists believe a COVID-19 infection could lead to damage to the heart in four or five ways. Some patients, they say, might be affected by more than one of those pathways at once.
Doctors have long known that any serious medical event, even something as straightforward as hip surgery, can create enough stress to damage the heart. Moreover, a condition like pneumonia can cause widespread inflammation in the body. That, in turn, can lead to plaque in arteries becoming unstable, causing heart attacks. Inflammation can also cause a condition known as myocarditis, which can lead to the weakening of the heart muscle and, ultimately, heart failure.
But Bonow said the damage observed in COVID-19 patients could be from the virus directly infecting the heart muscle. Initial research suggests the coronavirus attaches to certain receptors in the lungs, and those same receptors are found in heart muscle as well.
In March, doctors from China published two studies that gave the first glimpse at how prevalent cardiac problems were among patients with COVID-19 illness. The larger of the two studies looked at 416 hospitalized patients. The researchers found that 19% showed signs of heart damage. And those who did were significantly more likely to die: 51% of those with heart damage died versus 4.5% who did not have it.
Patients who had heart disease before their coronavirus infections were much more likely to show heart damage afterward. But some patients with no previous heart disease also showed signs of cardiac damage. In fact, patients with no preexisting heart conditions who incurred heart damage during their infection were more likely to die than patients with previous heart disease but no COVID-19-induced cardiac damage.
Those uncertainties underscore the need for closer monitoring of cardiac markers in COVID-19 patients, Jorde said. If doctors in New York, Washington state and other hot spots can start to tease out how the virus is affecting the heart, they may be able to provide a risk score or other guidance to help clinicians manage COVID-19 patients in other parts of the country.
For years, hospitals have rushed suspected heart attack patients directly to the catheterization lab, bypassing the emergency room, in an effort to shorten the time from when the patient enters the door to when doctors can clear the blockage with a balloon. Door-to-balloon time had become an important measure of how well hospitals treat heart attacks.
Jorde said that after COVID-19 patients recover, they could have long-term effects from such heart damage. But, he said, treatments exist for various forms of heart damage that should be effective once the viral infection has cleared. 2b1af7f3a8