(l) for the purpose of facilitating the application of any such law as is referred to in clause (k) in relation to the administration of the State of Sikkim and for the purpose of bringing the provisions of any such law into accord with the provisions of this Constitution, the President may, within two years from the appointed day, by order, make such adaptations and modifications of the law, whether by way of repeal or amendment, as may be necessary or expedient, and thereupon, every such law shall have effect subject to the adaptations and modifications so made, and any such adaptation or modification shall not be questioned in any court of law;
(n) the President may, by public notification, extend with such restrictions or modifications as he thinks fit to the State of Sikkim any enactment which is in force in a State in India at the date of the notification;
Service: The articles in this group have proposed an ES or related technology and methods that can be connected and included in ESs to present public or technical services. The public services present to end-users to fulfill their information needs and technical services present to the librarians or any professional user in library activities.
The Pan African Medical Journal (ISSN: 1937-8688) is a subsidiary of the Pan African Medical Journal. The contents of this journal is intended exclusively for professionals in the medical, paramedical and public health and other health sectors.
Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT), researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS) is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs) exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%.
This paper proposes an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS) composed of a number of smart garbage bins (SGBs), routers, and servers. Each SGB, which plays a role in collecting food waste, is battery operated for mobility and, considering the convenience to residents, performs various techniques through wireless communication. The server collects and analyzes the status of all SGBs and resident information collected through RFID readers. The router is used for server load distribution. The proposed system had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, which is one of the local districts in Seoul, the capital of Republic of Korea, according to the food waste reduction policy of the Korean government. Through the proposed system, not only food waste is reduced but also residents and the government save costs.
To solve these problems in existing RFID-based garbage collection systems, an IoT-based SGS is proposed. The proposed SGS fits into the category of IoT applied to external and public environments and was therefore designed to include the necessary components for such applications.
(i) Reliability. In IoT applied to external and public environments, communication is important for service provisioning. In particular, since this type of IoT has a wide service domain, reliable communication is necessary for devices to communicate with each other. Therefore, the SGBs utilized in the proposed system communicate with each other based on a wireless mesh network (WMN), securing communication reliability.
(v) Energy Efficiency. IoT applied to external and public environments relies on an always-on infrastructure and requires mobility, causing a large amount of energy consumption. To solve this problem, the SGBs operate using energy-efficient techniques, increasing their battery lifetimes.
The architecture of the SGS is shown in Figure 1. The SGBs, which are installed near apartment buildings and individual houses, exchange information with each other and send the information to the server through wireless communication. Structurally, the proposed system is divided into two domains: an administration domain and a service domain. In the administration domain, information transferred from a SGB is analyzed and processed. In the service domain, residents throw away their food waste in a SGB, and resident and SGB information is collected and transferred to the administration domain.
In this paper, we proposed an IoT-based SGS for replacing existing RFID-based garbage collection systems. To provide differentiation from passive collection bins and other types of RFID-based food garbage collection systems, we also proposed components required in external and public environments and designed the SGS based on these components. The basic system structure of a SGB is a centralized structure in which information gathered in each bin is transferred to the server; we also designed a HSGB for improving the battery efficiency of each SGB.
This work was supported by the Human Resources Development (no. 20124030200060) of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) Grant funded by the Korean government Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, by the MSIP (Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning), Republic of Korea, under the ITRC (Information Technology Research Center) support program (NIPA-2014-H0301-14-1015) supervised by the NIPA (National ICT Industry Promotion Agency), and by the Chung-Ang University Excellent Student Scholarship. 153554b96e